Managing Thatch

Recently received a couple of questions about managing thatch.

One question was concerning the recent trend in the industry to not core putting greens and only use solid tines. 

Non-coring programs rely on topdressing to dilute the organic matter (thatch) that accumulates, thus forming a mat layer as opposed to a thatch layer. Turgeon defines mat as a tightly intermingled layer composed of [Read more…]

Cadmium and Phosphate Fertilizer Debated in EU

Fertilizer derived from phosphate rock, which naturally contains cadmium, is being debated in the European Union. More than half the cadmium, a toxic heavy metal, in some agricultural soils originated from phosphate rock derived fertilizer. Sedimentary phosphate rock mined in northern Africa contains naturally high cadmium levels. Phosphate from mines of igneous rock in Russia has much lower levels.  Read more…

Rectangles of Melting Snow

Made an interesting observation while inspecting this trial for geese damage last December; rectangular plots of snow melting faster than other plots. Not sure of ramifications, but snow cover on some treatments was melted or melting faster compared to other treatments. This trial has numerous combinations of topdressing sands and rates as well as hollow tine cultivation. The treatments with a drier surface were retaining snow cover longer than treatments that tend to retain more water in the surface 0- to 3-inches.

Rectangular areas of melted/melting snow on this research (putting green) trial are treatments that have greater water retention in the surface 0- to 3-inches.

Winter Salt

At seminar lectures discussing the effects of turf fertilizer on water quality, I am often asked about the impact of de-icing salts on water quality. A recent article on winter road salt indicates that freshwater rivers are becoming saltier and more alkaline. Click here to read the article.

‘White soil’ along roadside indicates severe salt accumulation from winter de-icing.

Soil Temperatures

Soil temperatures have been steadily warming since late March at Hort Farm No. 2 (North Brunswick). Temperatures consistently ran above 50 degree Fahrenheit in early April, and between 50 and 60 degrees from 10 to 27 April.

May 1st was the fifth consecutive day of the maximum soil temperature reaching at least 65 degrees. Thus, soil temperatures are essentially entering into an ‘ideal’ period for the growth of cool-season turfgrasses.

Those experienced with managing summer patch may recall that 5 consecutive days with a soil temperature maximum of 65 degrees is the threshold for initiating a preventive summer patch control program. Isn’t it ironic that ideal growth of the fungus that causes summer patch is synchronized with ideal growth temperatures for cool-season turfgrasses.

Damage from summer patch disease, however, typically is not seen until later in the summer when heat and drought stresses make it challenging for plants with a compromised root system to survive.

summer patch disease on hard fescue

Severe summer patch disease on hard fesuce at Hort Farm No. 2 in July 2013.

Some Early Disease Activity

Sorry no pictures for this post, but thought I would share some recent observations. The recent rains and warm night on Friday/Saturday brought out two diseases on annual bluegrass earlier than we typically experience at the research farm in North Brunswick NJ (Hort Farm No. 2).

Saturday morning, our graduate student found nickel- to quarter-sized spots of foliar Pythium on his annual bluegrass plots. Tended to be more spots on his plots with greater N fertility but the disease was also on low N plots. This is the earliest I have experienced foliar Pythium, but the Friday/Saturday nighttime temperature didn’t get much below 65 degrees F, ‘good’ for Pythium.

Also on annual bluegrass, was a slight outbreak of dollar spot on Saturday morning. Dollar spot in April is early but not unheard of in NJ.

You might notice that the pests mentioned have shown up first on annual bluegrass.

Warm Air, Cool Soil

Warm air temperatures build anticipation of plant growth but keep in mind that cool soil temperatures will strongly moderate growth during the spring. Turf growth typically will be very slow until [Read more…]

Winter Damage

 

snow plow damage

Sod pieces removed by snow plowing.

While the warm weather has allowed many of us to get out and enjoy the outdoors, you may have noticed [Read more…]

Weather Ideal for Pythium and Brown Patch

The weather this summer has been very conducive for brown patch and Pythium blight diseases. I have received number requests this summer to address turf problems related to one or both of these diseases in lawns, sports fields, sod and now my own plots.

Suspected initial outbreak of Pythium on velvet bentgrass maintained at a 0.110-inch height that occurred over the weekend (August 7) in a cultivation trial at Hort Farm No. 2 in North Brunswick NJ.

Suspected initial outbreak of Pythium on velvet bentgrass maintained at a 0.110-inch height that occurred over the weekend (August 7) in a cultivation trial at Hort Farm No. 2 in North Brunswick NJ.

The weather forecast for the rest of this week indicates [Read more…]

Licensing for Mosquito Control – Category 8B

I have been getting questions from landscape/turf professionals about licensing for mosquito control. I asked Dr. George Hamilton about where to direct professionals with these questions.

Information on licensing of professionals for mosquito control can be found on the Rutgers Cooperative Extension Pest Management website: http://pestmanagement.rutgers.edu/PAT/

You can get a core manual and category 8B manual at your county extension office.